CHAPTER SEVEN - TROUBLES EAST OF THE MOUNTAINS
24th. Officer of the day. Busy all day keeping the men employed. We have quite a force of carpenters employed at present and they continue to come on. Capt. Haagsten spent the day with us and returned this evening to his ship. There is nothing going on of importance. The work will be delayed some time for the want of lumber I fear and the plasterer has difficulty to find work. I was busy all day.
25th. Tu. The rain continues to interfere both with our work and our amusements. We have been contemplating a picnic for several days but the rain has prevented it so far. The Constitution came up today with more favorable news from the mines. The Cutter had got in but Capt. Bachelder did not come on her. The Sea Bird had gone to San Juan Island with a detachment of troops by the Cols. order from Haller's post. Three men deserted from Shaaffs Co. yesterday. The Col. takes no interest in apprehending deserters. I am of the impression that in a few months we will lose a great many men by desertion. The mines will be a great inducement.
26th. W. The Sea Bird came up today. She brought no additional items. Capt. Conner and Mr. Owens came up to see us and took lunch. The work is going on exceedingly well. There is a prospect of getting the quarters finished now, another month will advance us so far that we can let the carpenters go to the mines if they wish. We had more rain today. There is nothing going on of importance. I wrote some letters, one to Mr. Dart and one to Cousin Lou.
27th. Th. Went to town in the morning and made some purchases. We were startled with the intelligence that Col. Steptoe (*1) had encountered the Palouse, Spokan and Coer de Lane Indians and had been beaten.
This intelligence was brought by a man named Fitz Harris purporting to be an express sent by Capt. Ingalls consisting of a letter from Capt. Ingalls forwarding a letter from Capt. Jordan who received an express from Capt. Kirkham at Walla Walla stating that intelligence had reached Walla Walla in such a shape that there was no doubt Col. Steptoe had been met by the unified tribes and defeated, Rumor (*2) says with a loss of fifty men killed, all trains of wagons and mules and his horses for his men except fifty.
Fitz Harris tells a great deal, but it evidently cannot be relied upon. The Columbia came in on Friday last to Portland and was gone when this intelligence reached the post at Vancouver so Ingalls sent it over here in the hope of meeting the Panama which had not arrived at last accounts. This intelligence is quite depressing. There are other items of news but I don't think that Harris can be relied upon.
28th. F. I was much annoyed by Mr. Harris this morning, importuning me for work. He insisted on my giving him a position of some kind. I finally offered to give him a six mule team to drive but he said that he could not drive. A great wagon master he! I have not been favorably impressed with the man by hearing him talk. He knows too much and is too loose in his statements. I was officer of the day today, but I was not prevented from going to town in the afternoon to attend to some business.
I met Mr. Meigs whilst there and ordered 20 # feet of tongue and grooved lumber. I mailed quite a number of letters. I wrote to Col. Swords about clothing, I wrote to Crook and Dart and my brother Albert.
I also wrote to Ingalls about Mr. Fitz Harris who I learn from the mail carrier has lost one or more horses for Windsor on the way and abused others, that he was drunk nearly all the way over and no one believed his statements. He left Fort Vancouver on Monday and did not get here until Thursday. He left his express behind at Monticello and had to return or sent an Indian for it. McKibben left this afternoon with much regret. The rain still continues which for this season of year is very remarkable. It has been raining every day for more than a week now.
I heard from Mullan again today. He will probably in making his road be stopped by these hostile demonstrations. Jesse Applegate also wrote me a long letter about the war in South Arizona.
29th. Sa. I was busy about the garrison all day. The ship Dan arrived this morning. Shaaff and the Dr. seemed determined to go on a spree, therefore, I came away. In the evening having attended to all my affairs I went to town and went on board the Dan where I found quite a party enjoying themselves very extensively. I soon became interested in the affair myself and soon found myself pretty far gone. About this time the Panama came in and brought the mail. I wanted to go ashore but old Dan would not let us go. I did not get away before twelve and left all the others there.
30th. Sunday. I congratulated myself on coming home when I did last night for if the few hours that I was drinking made me sick as I was today I would have been infinitely more so had I kept it up all night as Shaaff and some of the others did. I went to town this morning to see the Panama on her return from Olympia. I felt very unwell. The steamer did not bring us any very important intelligence. She brought me a letter from Albert in which I was pleased to learn that he had determined to graduate, and also that he would not leave the service until he knew some better business to go at.
Mendell writes me a good long letter. He is disappointed in obtaining permission to go home. He expected orders for Kansas.
31st. M. Nothing occurred worthy of note. We are progressing finely with our new buildings. We have about 24 carpenters at work and a months work will advance the buildings very much. Nothing occurred worthy of mention. I was busy all day with Q.M. duties. The deserters were punished this morning and drummed out of service this evening at parade (*3).
June 1st Tu. The Seabird came up this morning and left posters that she would run up to Fort Langley next trip leaving Olympia on Thursday. The Constitution came up in the afternoon and brought Dr. Taylor. I was Officer of the day. Farrel has gone upon a spree and broke into Bachelder's store where Wheeler, the carpenter, sleeps and took some clothing. I had him confined. The Col. is moving rapidly to our great delight.
2nd W. I was gone to town in the morning and again in the afternoon. The Resolute came up bringing me 20# feet of lumber planed tongue and groove. This lumber is much better than that received from Port Gamble.
We have not received any further intelligence from Walla. The detachment came in from Muckleshute.
3rd Th. The morning was taken up with garrison duties. I was on a court martial. The Sea Bird came down about one o'clock. The Col. and Miss Abbie went down on her. She goes to Victoria and thence to Fort Langley up Frazer's River. She brings no news from Oregon about the fight.
4th. T. The mail came in about noon and today brought us papers that give an account of the fight. It appears that Steptoe was unexpectedly met by the Spokens and driven back after some hard fighting with the loss of two officers killed, five men killed, ten wounded and one Sergt. missing. They retreated ninety miles without stopping. There is something wrong in this affair. The cause for the defeat which is assigned is that the command was out of ammunition, and they retreated in the night because they had no powder to fight the next day.
Dr. Taylor left today for Oregon. Fred went with him as far as Olympia. I did not get any letters. I wrote to Mendell, Maj. Alvord and Sergt Henry. I collected some money for the Cutter from Dr. Webber and had an amusing time doing it as the Dr. had given Moses Hurd security and signed the note jointly and separately which Henry had given me to collect . Hurd is not good for it and the Dr. had to pay it. He was much put out by it.
5th Sa. Officer of the day. The whole day was spent in garrison. Nothing transpired. Some Yakimas came in today from over the Mountains. They do not bring any definite intelligence about the feeling among the Indians on the east side of the mountains. The weather has become settled, dry, and warm.
6th. Sunday. This day passed off quietly and I whiled it away sleeping, reading, writing, and visiting in quarters. The weather is excessively warm. The flies are very troublesome and very numerous.
7th. Monday. I was busy about the garrison all day keeping the men at work. I heard a rumor today that the Pacific had arrived in the Sound below from California and Oregon with five hundred passengers. The weather continues very warm.
8th. Tu. Officer of the day. Spent the day in the a garrison. I wrote a letter for the Herald today (*5) about the fracas over the mountains. Nothing occurred worthy of note.
9th. The Constitution came up today bringing Lieut. Forsythe and Mr. Gardner and Capt. Bachelder, and a number of other passengers. The excitement continues still down the Sound about the gold mines. Town property is rising very extensively in Sehomo and Whatcom. The Pacific came in today as reported also the steamer Surprise to run from Victoria to Fort Langley. Bachelder has a great deal to tell. We heard that Cody and Parkinson are going over the mountains to the mines and will get Nelson as guide.
lOth Th. Gardner and I had an early breakfast and we rode to Olympia by ten o'clock. I met the Gov. for the first time since the Leshi trouble. He cut me and I did him(*6), we did not recognize each other. I was busy for several hours making purchases and tending to Q.M. business. I had a talk with Tilton about Steptoe's affair and learn that there has been a great deal of error in the whole expedition. Steptoe seems to have set his mind against the possibility of an outbreak, and persisted in it until a portion of his command were killed. This led to his providing himself but poorly with arms and ammunition. Many of the men were recruits and were thrown from their horses at the first shots of the Indians. The reduced charge for the Howitzers only was taken and the Dragoons had left their sabres behind.
The commands in the first set were separated widely from each other and without any Infantry to rest upon. Confusion and disorder prevailed. Had not the Nez Perces anticipated his retreat (*7) and provided canoes at the Red Wolf Crossing of the Snake River (*8), he would have been overtaken by the Indians. The dead and wounded were abandoned. Gardner and I left Olympia at four and returned by dark stopping for an hour at Fort Nesqually to take tea.
llth. F. The mail came in from Oregon but brought us no additional news from Steptoe. We learn, however, that Kansas has been admitted (*9) under the Lecompton constitution. I spent the day in the garrison as officer of the day. Forsythe left on the Constitution. We are annoyed a little at the delay about the Seabird. The Col. is waiting for her down the Sound.
12th Sa. The weather continues excessively warm. This day was mostly spent in the garrison. Nothing transpired. Gardner is with us and will be with us until the Col. arrives. He wants some horses and mules for the Commission. Nothing occurred, the gentlemen amused themselves at billiards most of the day.
13th Sunday. Another warm day spent in the garrison. Nothing transpired. I was occupied reading. Shaaff and Fred are sick today. There is quite a little epidemic in the garrison, attending the men with diarrhea first and colic afterward accompanied with some vomiting. No steamer as yet from below.
14th. M. Officer of the day. The weather still continues warm. The steamer Republic arrived this evening bringing the mail. The Col. and his daughter also came up. They bring the news of the passage of the Kansas bubble and also the deficiency bill. I received no private letters and not many papers. The Sea Bird is not expected up this way. The gold excitement continues below.
15th Tu. This day was spent in garrison. Nothing occurred except that the Col. has taken the reins again today and ordered a great many things. The Col. will not allow any horses to be sent to the Commissioners except what were promised to Lt. McKibben when he was here.
16th. W. The Constitution came up today bringing Lt. Bates and Mr. Gibb. They bring news of the arrival of the Commodore, of depredations by northern Indians and the successful navigation of the Frazers River by the Surprise and Sea Bird. Victoria is the rising town now.
I was busy all day with Q.M. duties. Gardner is going to purchase horses for the commission.
17th. Th. I was busy this morning writing an article for the Herald (*10) on the Hudson Bay Company and preparing another advertisement for hay. I rejected all the bids the other day. Two were for the delivery of California hay at $26 from Shroeders and Bachelder and the other from Keach , hay at $19 99 cts. I rejected all the bids because I could not accept either of the former as cheaper though not lower than the other, as California hay is much the best.
Keach was much disgusted and insisted that he had the contract and claimed it. I referred the matter to the Col. and he thought as I did that it was best to reject all the bids. Gardner rode to Olympia. There was nothing worthy of note transpired. I was busy with Q.M. affairs.
18th. F. I received a letter with a check from Maj. Alvord. He gives some Indian news. The war seems to have commenced. There is a report that the Indians under Selum and Qualchien have driven the animals away from the blockhouse in the Klickitat Valley. I got a long letter from Mendell in which he writes despairingly for the Army on account of Steptoe's defeat. He is under the impression from what he heard that there has been criminal neglect to bring on such a disaster. Russel also writes me a long letter about a mule that he has lost. He does not send us any news. Sergt. Henry acknowledges the receipt of the money received from Dr. Webber. Gardner and Lt. Bates left for down the Sound. I sent three horses to McKibben. Bates and Dyer have been detailed for the recruiting service.
19th. Sa. I was officer of the day yesterday. I also moved yesterday and was busy all today fixing up my quarters. We have got the mess hall all finished and I moved the Q.M. offices. The Col. also moved his office. We are getting along quite well with the quarters but Maloney pursues in balking their completion. He wrote a protest to the Col. complaining that I had put my men to work in his yard thereby inconviencing his family very much.
The Col. advised me to keep them at other work if possible. They were accordingly put on the other houses where I will have work for a few days, but not long. He might have gained as much by speaking to me about it. The post has abandoned dress parades for the present except on Sunday evenings. The Dr. has not been in the best of humor for a day or two.
20th. Sunday. Spent the most of this day in garrison fixing up my room. Nothing transpired. The Indians about Muckleschute are restless. They object to miners going through their country. There is prospect of more rain. It has been quite cold for a day or two.
21st. M. Spent the greater portion of the day in garrison. Rode to town in the afternoon and made some purchases. We had considerable rain during the day. Nothing occurred.
22nd. Tu. Officer of the day. The morning was taken up in getting my monthly papers ready for the mail. The afternoon was spent in superintending the work about the garrison. The Cortez came in about two o'clock with the mail. She brought nearly eleven hundred passengers to the Sound. I was authorized by Col. Swords to draw on him to the amount of twenty thousand dollars. I received a letter from John from Missouri. He gives no news. He is settled at farming.
June 23rd 1858. W. The Constitution came up today bringing plenty of news. Two more steamers besides the Cortez have come in below with more passengers. The Panama and Pacific loaded with passengers. Capt. Keys also brought a command of two hundred men to Fort Vancouver. Pearson gave me considerable Indian intelligence. He comes from Fort Clarke via Frazers River. Fourteen persons were drown in Victoria Harbor from the Cortez by the capsizing of a boatload of passengers. Quite a number of passengers were on board. I was busy most of the day paying off the workmen and redeeming vouchers.
24th. Th. I was busy in the office all day paying off men and preparing papers for the mail. Fred went to Olympia today. Nothing occurred. It still continues to rain more or less every day. Gibbs prepared a little article for the Herald about the route to the mines across the Snoqualmie River.
25th.F. I was exceedingly busy all day getting papers ready for the mail and paying out money. Coin is very difficult to get (* 11). I was in town trying to get some to pay extra duty men. The Constitution came down from Olympia with quite a lot of passengers. Fred went down on business for the Q.M. and Commissary. I sent a lot of purchases for McKibben and equipment. The Oregon mail brings us no news of importance except the probable discovery of gold on the Yakama.
26th. Sa. Officer of the day. I was busy during the forenoon paying off the extra duty men. I had difficulty in making change. In the afternoon I rode out to Tolmies and closed the beef contract. It was evening when we returned. I met a Mr. Gray from the Columbia River, quite a speculator in the days of 49 and 50. He is going up to Bellingham Bay for a similar purpose.
27th. Sunday. I rode to town for an hour or two in the morning, the afternoon was spent in garrison. I took quite a comfortable sleep. The weather was fine. There is an impression growing upon the minds of some reliable men that the Klickitats are going to war and perhaps some of our own.
29th Tu. I am kept quite busy in the garrison all day. There is nothing going on except that a party of a hundred miners are on their way to the mines by way of Snoqualmie Pass. They camped near the garrison yesterday.
30th. W. We had muster today and with the accompanying duties the whole day was taken up. I was Officer of the day. The Constitution came up bringing Mendell and Fred with quite a number of other passengers. The gold excitement still prevails. Steamers are arriving every day from San Francisco loaded with passengers. The wildest speculations are going on, particularly at Victoria in town property. There is no trail to the mines. Officer of the day.
July 1. Sunday. According to previous arrangements I rode out to Muckleschute (*4). Mendell and Fred went out to inspect the road now making to Seattle. I found everything quiet at the post. There are but few Indians there most of them have gone over the Mountains. A Klickitat who came over yesterday reports Owhi friendly. Qualchien, they say went on an errand of peace to the Spokan country, was taken for a Spokan by some miners and severely wounded.
Two Spokan chiefs were killed in trying to steal horses from the miners. All the Indians have been convened in to the post at Simcoe. This move will very likely keep peace on that side of the mountains. I found the post somewhat out of repair. The place lacks convenience and utility. I learn from the Indians that the Seattle people are cutting out a road to the Cedar River Pass commonly called the Snoqualmie.
2nd F. I left Muckleschute early this morning, and reached Steilacoom by noon, quite tired. The mail from Oregon brought us no news of importance. Quite a large party of miners are going across the Snoqualmie. I sent down the Sound for flour to Forsythe and Scott. The Cyrus has arrived at last with brick and lime and we shall be enabled to go on rapidly now with our building operations.
They are organizing a large force on the other side against the Spokens. Some fourteen companies will soon be concentrated at Fort Walla Walla. It is not mentioned yet who will command the expedition.
3rd. Sa. I rode to town this morning and made some purchases for the coming fourth. The day is to be celebrated on the 5th. Mendell left for Portland today. Frank Clarke has some wild speculations in hand with regards to Steilacoom. He has been trying to interest Gibbs and myself but Gibbs is very luke warm on the subject. He wants a map of the country beyond the Cascades which will show that Steilacoom promises superior advantages over all other towns in the Sound for communicating with the mines.
4th. This being Sunday we did not celebrate the a day although the Dr. insisted on it. He was unusually disagreeable today and disposed to quarrel. Shroeder was up and took dinner with us.
5th. M. The National Salute was fired today, we made it 34 guns in anticipation that Kansas, Minnesota, and Oregon are admitted (*12).
We had dinner at five o'clock and no one to help us except Hull, Gene, and Bachelder. We had quite a time of it. The Dr., he is laid up again. At night we had a little party at the mess and some dancing.
Mrs. Maloney, Mrs. Reynolds, Mrs. Bachelder and the young ladies were present. The evening passed very pleasantly and the ladies stayed until twelve o'clock although ajoined to be home at eleven. Nothing unusual occurred. I was a little annoyed at one of the howitzers not firing well at the salute. It ruined fire very often.
(*13) The man charging it on No. 2, Private Morris, who is an Englishman purposely put the wrong end of the cartridge in the gun first. The Ork which as been so long expected has at last arrived.
6th. Tu. Spent the greater part of the day in the garrison. I rode to town in the afternoon. We heard from Muckleschute that Nelson had returned. He reported the Klickitats from Owhi's people as having been driving back the miners from the Owhi. Qualchien was dangerously and perhaps mortally wounded (* 14). Three miners are reported killed and two Indians, one of them a chief. We are expecting the mail steamer now any hour. Saw the Negro minstrels.
7th. W. I was busy all day. It was late before I could get off to Olympia. I did not get up until eleven o'clock. Kate went off yesterday to visit her people. The Constitution came up this morning. She brought me thirty bbls. of flour. We received the late papers from down the Sound and the Tribune of June 5th. The news is not very important. Three thousand more emigrants arrived last week.
The excitement still keeps up. The Dr. is getting very uncontrolable. He has been drinking to excess now for several weeks and is verging on dillusion. I left him in dreadful passion about Lula, who it seems went off after berries without his permission. I expect the most unpleasant results unless he stops. He will no doubt have a row with Shaaff.
8th Tu. I was quite busy all morning until noon attending to Q.M. affairs. I made a number of purchases. Capt. Diggs rode down with me. We came by the reservation. My people are out after berries. I heard the news from the Yakama confirmed by the Nesquallies. They are afraid that the Klickitats will come over the mountains and bring them into trouble. It was after five when I got back to the post. I found the Dr. is verging on "Mania Routu." He is behaved very badly to Shaaff as I anticipated. No steamer yet.
9th. F. Officer of the day. Two Indians came in today from Rattlesnake prairie sent in by Pearson. He wrote me a note asking for some ammunition. They confirm the report of Owhi's son being dangerously wounded and that a chief had been killed. He expects to depart with his party across the mountains on Tuesday next. There was a large crowd passed down the Sound on the Constitution. They were loaded (*15) with cattle and horses.
The light house steamer Shubrick passed up to Olympia this afternoon after Col. Simmons to attend to some Indian difficulties on Tatoosh Island.
10th. Sa. Spent this day in garrison. Nothing occurred of importance. There (is) some apprehension about the Cortez that she does not arrive. The Dr. has become quite sobre and still persists in messing by himself. I regret exceedingly the Drs. conduct. I was in the hope that when he got sobre he would make everything right, but he has taken no action to restore peace and harmony in the garrison and I am losing all confidence in him.
Late at night the Cortez arrived with the mail. Fred brought it up. There were no private letters for me. Several official letters, however. no additional news, however.
11th. Sunday. Spent this day in the garrison reading the papers and sleeping. Nothing transpired. The Cortez returned this morning and discharged some freight. She landed nineteen bbls of flour for me. There should have been twenty. The Shubrick remains still at Olympia (*15). Solitat and Sitwell were up from the reservation and had a talk with the Col. evidently to ascertain what the feeling is on the Indian question.
July 12, 1858. M. There was considerable excitement in town today on account of the county elections. I attended to some business in the morning and in the afternoon went down again to witness the performance of a ventriloquist. It was midnight before we returned.
Bachelder thought to redeem his losses in the Leshi affair by running for representative (*16). He, however, has been badly beaten.
13th. Officer of the day. Nothing transpired. We have two mails a week now from Oregon. The news from Oregon confirms the report of gold discoveries. We have had two days of quite good weather.
14th. W. The steamer did not arrive today as was expected. Nothing occurred. I was busy about the office most of the day. Nothing going on here now of interest.
15th. Th. The Constitution arrived from down the Sound. She brings the news that a great many miners have gone back to San Francisco again in the last steamers. The trail is not through yet from Whatcom and it is very uncertain whether it will be soon. Gibbs has determined to return to Semiahmoo this trip.
16th. F. The father of Winnie and William, a helpless old Indian, came in this morning and entered a complaint against Collins from Seattle who came up last evening and going out on the prairies found the old man's camp which he did by threatening to shoot several Indians if they did not show him the way to the old man's camp.
There, by drawing a revolver and threatening to shoot the old man, he got three blankets, which he demanded as pay for a horse that he had lost during the war and which he charged these Indians with having taken. He is said to have behaved very badly otherwise.
There were three white witnesses, Luther Keach, John Rigney, and Alexander Davidson, who saw the transaction and described it as disgraceful for a white man. I took Mr. Rigney to town to get his affidavit in order to procure a warrant for his arrest. I found, however, that Collins had left in the night for Seattle, and was then in another county.
We could do nothing, therefore, today. I, however, wrote to Mr. Andersen, the prosecuting attorney, for advice in the matter. We received quite a mail from Oregon. I received a letter from Crook, Mullen, and Mendell each besides several business letters. They do not write any news of importance. Genl. Clarke is organizing quite a campaign and we hear the Col. Wright goes out with eight (*17) companies and Garnett with 200 men, the first from Walla Walla and the others from Simcoe. I wrote to Capt. Russel this afternoon and to McKibben.
CHAPTER SEVEN-TROUBLES EAST OF THE MOUNTAINS
1. On May 8,1858 Colonel Edward Steptoe set out from Fort Walla Walla with one hundred fifty-nine men on a reconnaissance in the direction of Fort Colville where he was seize some Palouse Indians who had stolen some cattle. On May 16,1858 he met a combined force of more than one thousand Indians from several tribes and was forced to retreat with some losses. (Kip, 9-10).
2. "Rumor says" is always the worst.
3. Bonney reports (Vol. I, p. 248) that the soldiers were given forty-nine lashes on the bare back each, their heads shaved and then they were drummed out of the army. Two were sentenced to serve for varying periods on a ball and chain.
4. Fraser ( p. 169) reports that the Camp on the Muckleschute was abandoned August, 1857. He also wrote that it was named to honor Lieutenant William Slaughter who was killed near there.
The casulties suffered in Steptoe's defeat included: Bvt. Capt. O.S.A. Taylor, 2nd Lieut. William Gaston, Pvt. Alfred Barnes, Pvt Victor Charles LeMay, 1st Sergt William C. William, Pvt. Charles H. Harnish, and Private James Crozet. The missing soldier was 1st Sergt. Edward Ball. (Payette, p. 275).
5. Kautz literary efforts were often unsigned as was a common practice in those days. Since the Herald was a one man business during most of this period Prosch was forced to do a lot of reprinting from other newspapers and hense appreciated any help Kautz could give him in writing local news.
6. Perhaps the poem in the second issue of the Truth Teller gave reason for Governor McMullen to "cut" Kautz. In read in part:
The Indians say that I'm wake-cum tux,*,
The Bostons say the same,
And the soldiers they know I'm an awful ass,
But I am not to blame,
The Lord didn't give me brains enough,
I wish he had given me more,
Then carry me back to Old Virginny,
To Old Virginny's shore.
*wake-cum tux was a chinook jargon word for "no understand, stupid." (Schmitt, p. 39).
7. Steptoe buried two howitzers before retreating. They were dug up September 25,1858 during Col. George P. Wright's expedition. The Indians had burned the gun carriages. (Kip, p.110).
8. The Nez Perce Indians who saved Steptoe's command did so in the following manner: "...the chief (Timothy) placed his own people out as guards, and set the women of his tribe to ferrying the exhausted soldiers and their effects across the stream... the fugitives went into camp for a time to rest, and while there were overtaken by Lawyer, chief of the Nez Perces at the head of a formidable war party, who wished the soldiers to go back with him and try it over again with the northern Indians. (History of the Pacific Northwest, I,626).
9. Kansas was admitted to the Union in January of 1861. The Constitution adopted at the town of Lecompton was the second of four to be framed by Kansans. Lecompton was the site of a pro-slavery element for the Constitution drafted there provided for Kansas as a slave state.(Zornow, p. 76).
10. Local settlers were generally antagonistic towards the Hudson's Bay Company because of the company's claim to much of the land in Pierce County. Army officers were generally more sympathetic to Company claims and were friendly with Company officials. Kautz became a close friend of William F. Tolmie, Factor at Fort Nisqually.
11. Providing an adequate medium of exchange proved most difficult for those interested in the money supply. For a time wheat was legal tender and territorial script was tried in Oregon. A mint was organized in Oregon City in 1849 where gold coins were privately minted.( N.R.Knight, "Early Washington Banking," Washington Historical Quarterly XXVI 1, October 1935, 248-49).
12. Kansas was admitted to the Union on January 29,1861, Oregon was admitted February 14,1859 and Minnesota was admitted May 11,1858, so two too many guns were fired.
13. Alien service in the United States Army was very common. Irishmen, Germans, Englishmen and Canadians were the most common groups of foreigners to join the Army.
14. Qualchien lived long enough to be hanged by Colonel George Wright in September of the same year. (Kip. 102-04).
15. The Shubrick was built in Philadelphia in 1857 and was the first lighthouse tender on the Pacific Coast. She cruised up the Columbia River farther than any other ocean going steamship in June of 1859.(Lewis and Dryden, p. 84).
16. Warren Gove, Nathaniel Orr and W.N. Savage were elected representatives.(Bonney, I, 255).
17. Wright's command consisted of two squadrons of the First Dragoons, four companies of the 3rd Artillery, two companies of the 9th Infantry, 30 Nez Perce Indians, one mountain howitzer, one additional company of the 3rd in Camp plus a reserve howitzer.(Kip. 131).