The journal of occurrences at Muck Station of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company for 1858 and 1859 describes the day-to-day life and times on the Nisqually Plains on Pierce County, Washington Territory near the end of the ascendancy of the Hudson's Bay Company and its farming subsidiary in United States territory.

Edward Huggins, the keeper of most of this journal, came to the Northwest Coast of North America in 1850 as a teen-ager and was assigned by his employer, the Hudson's Bay Company to a clerkship at their post of Puget Sound. Huggins worked at Fort Nisqually for a number of years and as explained in his introduction to this work which was taken from an account written for the Portland Oregonian in 1900 he was transferred to the service of the subsidiary, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, during the Indian War of 1855 to have charge of the flocks, herds and farms of the company on the plains area.

Each major location of the Company was required to keep a daily journal of happenings and Huggins recorded what went on each day. Muck was the principal station in the agricultural region of the county and it served as headquarters for supplies and workers for the many smaller stations located on the plains which stretched for miles north of the Nisqually River and south of the present site of Tacoma.

By the time described in this journal the original herds of cattle that were run on the plains had disappeared and the Company was concentrating on the raising of crops and of sheep. It was quite surprising to note the difficulties Huggins and others had in securing beef cattle for commissary purposes in 1858 and 1859 when they once had several thousand of their own on the plains.

The cosmopolitan and constantly changing group of servants or employees is also of great interest. Kanakas or Hawaiians like Kalama were employed at intervals quitting work to get better paying jobs elsewhere or seeking for riches in the gold rushes, but usually coming back to the Company for steady employment. The extensive use of Indians, especially Indian women, was also of interest. They served as garden workers, weeding, hoeing and harvesting and did the actual sheep shearing when all the sheep were herded to Fort Nisqually for that annual rite. Indian men were regular employees at the several stations serving as herders and farmers.

By the time recorded in this journal the Plains area was being encroached upon by American settlers. The treaty of 1846 between the United States and Great Britain had guaranteed the rights of the two British Companies and the land claims in Pierce and other counties in Washington territory were officially off limits to settlement. Numbers of people, however, became squatters, expecting the British company claims to be extinguished by the government.

Huggins and other Hudson's Bay and Puget's Sound employees, usually with William F. Tolmie, chief factor and agent of both companies on Puget Sound, would officially warn Americans they were trespassing on private property and let the courts at a later date decide ownership.

Huggins did, however, respond to levies for school taxes and road taxes and sent workers to assist in these public improvement projects.

Not once in this journal for 1858 and 1859 did Huggins mention either his wife or family. He was married in October of 1857 to Letitia Work daughter of John Work of the Hudson's Bay Company and by this marriage Huggins became brother-in-law to William F. Tolmie who was also married to a Work daughter. Huggins often referred to trips to Fort Nisqually but does not mention at any place his own domestic arrangements.

It should be noted that Huggins was rather casual about the names and spelling of both company servants and visitors as well as locations. So much of what was done was done orally and often names were not recorded exactly as they should have been. In addition Indian names were always a difficulty and the same person may have had his own name spelled several different ways, sometimes in the same document. Some effort has been made in this document to standardize spelling.

These journals are presented as they were written. Edward Huggins kept them for most of the time and only occasionally does the handwriting of others intrude.

Gary Fuller Reese.
June 21, 1984.


The person in charge of the company's sheep raising business was an Englishman named Dean, a man at least fifty or fifty-five years of age who, with his wife resided at one of the stations called Kithlow, about one mile north of Hillhurst. The site of the station is now owned by a man named Hughes. Dean and his wife, after the White River massacre, became alarmed and refused to remain in longer at Kithlow house, but came to the fort bag and baggage. The men at the other stations subordinate to him, after he abandoned his post became alarmed also, and signing their intention of leaving their stations and moving to the Fort.

The doctor (William F. Tolmie) was very much disturbed by the action of Mr. Dean, and some of the men under him, and it was a very undesirable position to be in, to have several thousand sheep in his charge and with no one to take care of them. Mr. Dean could not be blamed for acting as he did. He was an old man, physically weak, had been in the country only three or four years, and was too old to become acquainted with the Indian character.

After the killing of Moses, Connell, McAllister and Miles by the Indians, and the White River massacre, it was not surprising that the old gentleman became alarmed.

I saw the position of the doctor and not feeling any fear of the Indians volunteered to go out to the plains, and take charge of the stool,, and farming business. The doctor immediately agreed to my proposal and I think felt quite relieved. He gave me authority to act as I pleased in the matter and I picked out my men, English, Irish, Scotch, French-Canadians, Kanakas, one negro, and one American. With this cosmopolitan force I at once moved out to the principal station, Muck house, the place now owned by the Kandle family.

There was a large log house on the place which stood on the south side of Muck creek about half a mile from the timber. Myself and the hands, some twenty in number, lived in this house during the war, about two years, and got along very well, considering the kind of men I had to deal with. I had no serious trouble with them all that time, but occasionally they would get possession of liquor of some kind or other, and then it would seem that the devil possessed some of the crowd.

I pastured about two thousand sheep from Muck house which were herded by white men and Kanakas. I also had a large lot of sheep, cattle, and horses at other stations on these plains, and for two years I would make weekly horseback trips around the stations, a distance of thirty or forty miles and not set eyes upon a human being except our own men, and now and then parties of volunteers who were out scouting for Indians.

Edward Huggins. Reminiscences of Puget Sound. ppgs. 289-92.

April 22, 1858. Thursday. There was a hard frost this morning but it was fine all day. Barr with Ox Wagon hauled thirty bushels of oats to Ash Farm. Legg and the Horse Wagon took twenty bushels also to the same place. Sent all the harrows, for I intend to sow and harrow them in tomorrow. I sent nine bushels of seed potatoes to Siluhogwas farm. I went to Tuchatchu and counted 3,000 rails and gave the makers (Indians) an order on the Fort for payment. A gang of women were employed today spreading dung on the potato land. Wilson one day.

Mr. Kennedy was out today to consult me about alterations to be made in last year's accounts. I received two milch cows from the Fort for use here. Peter Lagace commenced work here this evening, at wages of twelve dollars per month.

April 23, 1858. Friday. It was fine warm weather today. We sowed forty six bushels of oats at Ash Farm. Five harrows were also at work there. The Ox Wagon and the Horse wagon returned from Ash Farm. The potato gang were cutting seed potatoes and piling up dung near the barn and the stable. Peter Lagace, Junior, was in charge of the gang. I’ve killed twelve weathers for next week's rations. Ross drove in three mares for Yam Hill. We branded three yearlings and castrated one stallion, "Cowlitz Cream." I went myself to Ash Farm and to Siluhogwas. Wilson one day.

April 24, 1858. Saturday. Fine, very warm weather. The gang was employed in the garden and in heaping dung. The oxen were hauling firewood. Legg and the horse wagon took around the monthly rations. Lagace was in charge of the gang. We finished harrowing the oats at Ash Farm. Two hands left to put in potatoes and a field of oats at Siluhogwas farm. The lambing is nearly through. Turned out the workhorses and oxen to grass on the south plain, will get them in again on Monday.

April 25, 1858. Sunday. Very warm all day. The evening was sultry and foamy like- Legg drove in a band of wild horses for colt branding.

April 26, 1858. Monday. Fine. I took on E. McLeod at ten dollars a month. McLeod and Barr were with the oxen hauling dung to the potato land. Two ploughs were ploughing potatoes, the ploughmen being Simon and Ignace. A gang of women were planting. P. Lagace took a horse wagon load of sheep skins to the Fort and brought out a load of items for farm use. Before breakfast all the men hands assisted Legg to brand eight yearlings and castrate two horses. I gave Legg the job of handling "Yamhill" and mares. Wilson one day.

Went to Siluhogwas farm. Rabesca and two Indians were planting potatoes and putting in two acres of oats at Siluhogwas. They are to return hither this evening. The lambing is nearly at a close.

April 27, 1858. Tuesday. Showery. Two ploughs were at work on land for cole seed and turnips. Rabesca and an Indian were cutting fence pickets. The gang with Peter Lagace, Junior, moved all the dung from the parks. I sent rations to Molock house. The oxen with Barr and McLeod were hauling out dung. Wilson one day. Simon was out looking for mares and colts.

I went to the Fort and arranged with Doctor Tolmie that Farron should reside at Thithlow and Greig to come and work at Muck. I came out by Thithlow, Sastuc, and Spanaway. Coopers crop looks pretty well. The sheep look scabby but are nearly through lambing.

A man named Byrd has jumped old Spanaway.

April 28, 1858. Wednesday. Fine. The hands were employed planting potatoes and brushing in the cole seed. They did harrowing after the potatoes were ploughed in. They spent time hauling out dung, firewood and pickets for straight fencing. The gang was spreading dung and seeding. Wilson one day. He was employed making a land roller. Sowed three pounds of cole seed on one acre, also planted thirteen bushels of potatoes. Simon drove in four mares for Yam Hill. I sent an Indian, a yoke of oxen and a wagon to Molock house to haul out rails to finish the fencing there. I went to Maroon Lake and found a desirable place for the new sheep station.

April 29, 1858. Thursday. It is fine growing weather. We finished planting potatoes. Barr, McLeod, and all the Indians except Simon and Peter are putting up straight picket fence through the lane leading from the house to the barn. The gang of women are weeding the weat. The oxen are not at work. Simon and Peter Lagace drove in three bands of horses. Wilson, one day.

The following is a statement of the crops in this summer at the various stations:

Wheat Oats Peas Potatoes
Muck 36 61 12 123
Siluhogwas 18 5 9
Ashland 46 5 5
Kul kul eh 23 4 10 4
Wheat Oats Peas Potatoes
Moluck House 60 12
Sastuc Farm 30 23 13
Totals 84 218 12 172

April 30, 1858. Friday. Fine. The hands were employed branding colts, putting up fencing, weeding the weat, etc. Two hands were driving up horses. Lagace took the weat to the mill and brought back flour. Lechjwas herding mares. Wilson one day. He finished the roller.

May 1, 1858. Saturday. Fine. Barr was rolling the weat and cole seed. The remaining hands worked as yesterday. Lagace took around the rations in the horse wagon. Cut a young stallion and branded seven colts. Two boys (Simon and Ignace) were out after Mares, drove in two with young colts. Yanthill now has twenty-one mares. Cowie and Kakammi are making a roller at Siluhogwas for use at the south-west farms. Wilson was not at work.

May 2, 1858, Sunday. Fine weather all day. Showery in the early morning.

May 3, 1858. Monday. Gloomy weather all day and showery in the evening. I sent Rabesca and two horses and the plough to work at the Fort. Ignace took a spare pair of horses to take Farron out to Thithlow. I went myself to Thithlow to put Farron in charge. I saw Doctor Tolmie there who informed me that Farron objected to go to Thithlow and that he had discharged him in consequence. Greig is to stay at Thithlow for the present.

I went to Sastuc and spent all night there. The hands are employed here killing and cutting two hogs.(weight--540 pounds). We were also weeding weat and carrying hard ground to the road leading to the bridge. Barr and oxen were rolling the weat and oats.

May 4, 1858. Tuesday. Fine. The hands were employed curing the pork killed yesterday, making the road and weeding the calf pasture. Timothy fetched two loads (oxen and the eight horse wagon) from Aujer's place on the Nisqually River. Sent Indian Boston to herd at Siluhogwas in place of Smeahkymum who was paid off today.

May 5, 1858. Wednesday. Fine. Myself and six hands and the horse wagon went to Ashland and laid out and partly put up a fence around the land recently sown. The wagon returned this evening. Barr rolled oats. Lagaci (junior) was with the gang weeding. Legg was herding the mares. I had Legg and Thahamim from Siluhogwas assisting at Ashland. Went to Kul-kul-eh. Ross looking up mares and colts. The crop at Siluhogwas is looking well.

May 6, 1858. Thursday. Fine. I sent the wagon and five hands to Ashland to put up fencing. They finished and returned this evening. The fence is not yet staked. Ross and Simon are driving up horses. They caught two young horses for Simon to break. The oxen couldn't be found today. Barr and Lagaci were employed in the garden. The gang spent the day in weeding. 

I sent Alick with the horse and cart to the fort with two harrows. He brought out necessaries for use at the farm. Legg whilst out herding sheep shot four hogs, two with our mark and two not marked, the Company having a great number of hogs away (nearly wild). Legg concluded they were the Company's property.

They proved to be the Widow Latour's hogs whose mark is similar to that of the Company. I gave them pigs in exchange. The killed hogs will make good pork. The Reverend Mr. Berry was here today and gave us a prayer.

May 7, 1858. Friday. Fine weather, very warm. Barr hauling fir logs. The gang were weeding. Mcleod and Lagaci were putting up fence to the garden and branding colts. Sent Indians Simon and Cowahtah to break in wild horses, two now in hand. Ross spent the day driving up horses. Legg with the horse wagon and myself went to Tlithlow and locked up the house, lately inhabited by Greig. Moved Greig to Spanaway where he is to commence getting out logs for a house about one half a mile southwest of old Spanaway. We are intending to keep a flock of sheep there. 

The Company has no person residing now at Tlithlow. Saw Cooper. Spent all night at Sastuc. The Fort wagons fetched two loads of straw from Molock house.

May 8, 1858. Saturday. Fine, warm weather. Lagaci took rations around. Barr and McLeod were putting up fencing, the gang was weeding. Simon and Cowahtah were riding wild horses. Ross was out after horses. Dlen, wagon and oxen returned from Molock House. Young here fencing nearly finished at Molock House. Mr. Dean is claiming a yearling filly which we have branded. Some of our men have known the filly since it was foaled. It still runs with its mother, a Company's mare. I dispute Dean's claim.

May 9, 1858. Sunday. Fine, moderately warm.

May 10, 1858. Monday. Showery. Barr, with the oxen fetched a load of oat straw from Molock house. McLeod and Guadacham putting up fencing. Ross and two Indians drove up a lot of young horses to break. Took on A. Wallace to ride wild horses. Paid off part of the Indian gang with the remainder, six, weeding the timothy patch. Lagaci (Junior) hunting up a cow lately calved. Received a note from Dr. Tolmie saying that we had branded one or two colts belonging to settlers.

May 11, 1858. Tuesday. Fine. Barr hauling firewood. Young was at work here today preparing railings for the enclosure around my house. The remaining hands were occupied the same as yesterday. I sent a yoke of oxen to Siluhogwas to haul out fencing. There are ten maroons in hand. One of the breakers, A. Wallace, was hurt by a fall from a wild horse.

May 12, 1858. There were slight showers of rain during the day. I sent Young to get a small account settled with Hadley for mutton supplied. Barr was hauling logs and McLeod was cutting pickets. Guadacham was barking pickets and the gang was weeding. Legg left the service, I paid him off by an order on the Fort. There was excitement about the Thompson's River gold mines. Wilson, three quarters of a day.

May 13, 1858. Thursday. Fine weather. The hands were cutting and barking pickets and weeding. The oxen were hauling pickets and harrowed the early potato land. The potatoes are just showing. Sent Alick with the cart to the Fort for necessaries. Wilson one day. Young was at work here today. Ross drove in a band of mares. The boys were at wild horses.

May 14, 1858. Friday. Fine weather. Barr, McLeod, Guadacham and the gang were repairing the fence around the east field. The oxen and wagon were employed at the same job. The boys were riding wild horses. Ross drove a lot of mares to Ashland to put with "Yelmor". Young was employed variously and went home this afternoon. Cooper came here today for the Sastuc rations. He formerly received rations from the Fort but for the future he will get them from this place. I, myself, went to Siluhogwas, Ashland, Kul kul eh, and Tuc hast chu. Cowie was employed in enlarging the enclosure at Siluhogwas. The sheep at Siluhogwas are doing well, a good number of lambs have died, however. Lagace, Senior has twenty five mares-with "Yelmor." McLeod's sheep look well. The crops at the out stations have a thriving look.

May 15, 1858. Saturday. Fine weather. Barr and McLeod with the oxen and wagon making good fences around the farm. Simon took rations around. The Indian gang left off work and the gang returned. I, myself, went to the Fort this evening. Young in charge here today, the boys were riding horses. Lagace, Junior was herding mares. Wilson, one day.

May 16, 1858. Sunday. Fine.

May 17, 1858, Monday. Fine weather. The hands were employed repairing fencing and riding wild horses. Rabesca came out today from the Fort to stay here. I came out myself this afternoon. Greig, who is here, says that three squatters in the Spanaway district visited him yesterday and informed him that they had been deputized by the settlers around Spanaway to warn him not to bring the Company's sheep onto those plains. (Spanaway).

They had all determined that if sheep were sent there, they would drive them, off, etc. etc. etc.. The deputation were Hadley Thompson and Williamson.

May 18, 1858. Tuesday. Fine, very warm weather. Young, McLeod and Rabesca were fencing around the calf pasture. About three quarters of an acre of timothy was sown this year. I am now about to turn the calves on it. Barr, with the oxen, went this morning to haul out new logs for the new house at Spanaway (Greigs). Went myself to Greigs and Molock House. Mr. Morrison who now resides adjoining to Young House stated that he should give a good American cow and calf for a debt he owes the Puget's Sound Company.

Young is to have the use of the cow at Molock house. The crop at Young's looks well. Wilson, one day, still employed at my back house. The boys drove in a fresh lot of wild horses to break. Called on Assessor Brown and gave in on the assess of the Company's property. Ross took the horse wagon loaded with weat to the mill and brought back flour this evening. Took the wagon to haul out rails to complete the fence at Kul kul eh.

May 19, 1858. Wednesday. Fine weather all day and signs of rain in the evening. Barr finished hauling logs for Greigs house and Spanaway and went with the team and wagon to Molock house to haul out rails to complete the fence. McLeod and Rabesca fencing around the calf park. Sent the three best broke horses to the Fort for use there. Engaged two Indians to make rails at Greigs (Spanaway) at sixteen dollars for the rails and they find their own provisions. The Indians were riding wild horses. A Mr. Parkinson was here this evening, wants to purchase horses. 

May 20, 1858. Thursday. It was raining hard all day. Sold a young horse to Mr. Parkinson for sixty-two dollars, delivered at Steilacoom. McLeod and Rabesca were mending fencing. P. Lagace fetched a cow and calf from Squally Lake. Cowhatah was herding mares. Ross arrived with the horse wagon to take around monthly rations. Simon and A. Wallace were riding wild horses.

May 21, 1858. It rained all day. P. Lagace took the horse to Parkinson at Steilacoom, and got paid for the same. Took down "Yam-hill" to have him shod. Rahesca and McLeod killed and cut up the remaining hogs in the stye and then worked in reframing the garden Fence. Alick went to the fort with the Horse cart and brought out sugar, etc. Ross took rations to Greig's (Spanaway). Ross was afterwards employed at the Garden fence.

May 22, 1858. Saturday. Heavy showers with wind. McLeod and Rabesca were reframing fences. Ross with the horse wagon took around the monthly rations. He is to keep the wagon at his station (Kul kul eh) to finish hauling out the rails lately split by Bastien. Wilson, one day. A. Wallace and Simon were at wild horses. Kowatah was herding mares.

Went to the Fort by way of Siluhogwas, Ashland, and the four lakes. Cowri and H. Ephraim were employed in hauling out rails to enlarge the enclosure at Siluhogwas. I intend to fence from eighty to one hundred acres. The crop looks first rate, rather weedy in places. The crop at Ashland looks well, the fence there is not yet started and ribbed. Bastien is to make rails to pay his debt. Wallace killed a lamb at Cowri's and two Ewes at Tuchaatchu. The rams at four lakes look well. P. Lagace, Senior has thirty mares with "Yelmor " at Ashlands.

May 23, 1858. Sunday, Cold, with rainy weather.

May 24, 1858. Monday. Heavy showers of rain. I came out by the way of the Southwest Stations. Ross was employed at his fence. Bastien has engaged two Indians to make rails on his account at Ashland. Cowri is getting on well with his fence. Rabesca, McLeod and Lagace were employed in weeding the potato patch (early), and transplanting cabbages. Wilson, one day.

May 25, 1858. Tuesday. It was raining hard all day, cold and the river was nearly as high as last winter. MacLeod, Rabesca , and Lagace were digging land and transplanting cabbage in the garden. Ross is here with the horse wagon to take hands to raise Greigs house at Spanaway. I did not go on account of the rain. Ross was employed white washing my back kitchen. Barr returned with the oxen and wagon having finished hauling out rails at Molock house. I engaged two Indians to make rails at Ashland at thirteen dollars a month and rations. Simon and Wallace out after fresh Maroons and Mares with young foals. They drove in two bands. Wilson, one day.

Grain crops here looking very rank. Cole seed coming up thin. The potatoes are up. We turned out Barr's oxen.

May 26, 1858. Wednesday. Showery. All hands (horsebreakers excepted) went and raised Greigs house at Spanaway. The Sastuc band of ewes and lambs in tonight, we are going to dock lambs tomorrow. Myself with the men at Spanaway. Lagace, Junior. was in charge during my absence. He has been employed making ready separating for tomorrow’s work. Some of my weat is looking very rank. The horse wagon conveyed the hands to Spanaway. Gave Byrd an order on the Fort for payment for lumber used here.

May 27, 1858. Thursday. Raining hard all day. Castrated and tailed the Sastuc lambs (Merinos) and the band at this place (Leicesters). The Sastuc sheep look poorly. The ewes stood count well, but not a good crop of lambs. Cooper was here and took away rations for two weeks. Sastuc band of sheep went home. Mcleods band were in this evening from Tu chat chu. We moved the sheep pack here. Turned out six of the young horses on account of bad weather. Ross went home this evening. Dr. Tolmie and family out today.

May 28, 1858. Friday. Heavy showers. We cut the Tu chat chu and Siluhogwas band's sheep. The lambs have not turned out well. The season has been very bad and a great number of lambs have died. There number is 1280 ewe lambs and 1281 wethers, in all 2561 lambs. The Siluhogwas band is here this evening. Young was here this afternoon. He has finished the fence at Molock house. The fort wagon brought out cedar logs. Wilson is to make a pair of panel doors for the Fort's large house. Sent Simon to the Fort with thirty dry ewes for use.

May 29, 1858. Saturday. Showery all day with a frosty morning. Most of the summer crops in the garden were killed. Counted the Down band of Ewes. Found a good number of them missing, reported to have died- during the winter. Picked out the largest of the early season lambs and joined them with the ram band. Myself and Young went to Sandy Smith's to see a horse he claims which we have branded. It is a four year old horse and looked at it this spring and it is the Company's property.

L. Smith does not press his claim. Dr. Tolmie accompaned by, two Americans, named Hadley and Owens were out looking at the sheep. They are negotiating a purchase. Ross took around rations and is to keep the wagon to finish hauling out rails at Kul kul eh. Couri and Kuphain are putting up a fence a Silgowkas . The hands here are employed at delivering and driving ram lambs to join the ram band, etc.

May 30, 1858. Sunday. Fine. Received a communication from Dr. Tolmie. He tells me a drunken row took place there this morning at the Fort. Gohome killed a Snoqualmie and he was severely stabbed. Cush, the cook, was also shot in the breast by the Snoqualmies. An Indian woman was also severely stabbed. I am to go to the Fort tomorrow.

May 31, 1858. Monday. It was showery. I went to the Fort early this morning. Hadley and Owens have agreed to give beef cattle in exhange for sheep. They are to take McLeod's band of ewes and lambs (Merions) at nine dollars per pair, ewe and lamb, and six dollars per dry ewe. They also will take other sheep at good prices. They are to deliver here by the first of next August one hundred fifty head of two and three year old steers for which they are to receive fifteen cents per pound, paid in sheep.

I went to Steilacoom and gave in a bid for supplying the troops with beef for the six months coming.

JUNE 1858.

June 1, 1858. Tuesday. Fine pleasant weather. The hands were employed transplanting cabbage, breaking horses, etc. We turned out a lot of mares from "Yam hills" band, having been fully serviced by "Yam hill." Lagace is here with "Yelmor" and his mares. We branded some yearlings and turned out a number of the mares.

Ignace came out from the Fort to work here. He went to Molock house and Spanaway. Young was employed in staking the fence. The Indian Aftoah is now herding the Molock House sheep. Greig has got the roof on his house and is now chinking it up.

June 2, 1858. Wednesday. It was fine growing weather. Barr in the forenoon was planting cabbage. Ross with the oxen hauled lumber to floor the new house at Spanaway. Rabesca and Ignace were weeding potatoes and in the garden. Simon and A. Wallace are constantly employed working wild horses. Kowatah is herding mares. 'Rabesca has charge of "Yam hill" and takes him to mares three times a day. Wilson, one half a day making the door and hinges for the Spanaway house. Lagace took in beef and brought out a load of flour. Dr. Tolmie and family were out today.

June 3, 1858. Thursday. A very warm day. Barr and Lagace with the oxen were hauling rails for the fence between field number three and the large field number five to partition off a part of field number one from a pasture on which there is a crop and a good deal of wild grass growing.

Rabesca and Ignace were erecting gate parts for the pasture. Wilson, one day. He made a gate and fixtures. Greig is here for some supplies for the new house at Spanaway. Ross brought the wagon home, having finished hauling rails at Kul ku leh. One of our best work oxen, "Baight" has been shot with some shot in the rump, but not hurt. I suspect of having shot the ox as the cattle have been running over on his property and have been in his fields. His fence is not high enough to keep out stock.

June 4, 1858. Friday. All hands were employed putting up a fence. McLeod and myself went to Greigs this afternoon and helped get the door hung, etc. The horse cart took supplies to Greigs and a yoke of cattle to grass at Kul kul eh. There is only one yoke here now.

June 5, 1858. Saturday. This is "A" number one weather. The hands are employed in putting up fence. Lagace with the horse wagon took around rations and I went myself to Tu chat chee, Silgowkas, Ashland, and Kul kul eh. Couri is getting along well with the fencing a Silgowkas. Ross' fence is now completed at Kul kul eh. Wayamoch came here today to work for a time. Young is here also. All spent the night at Molock House. Simon and Wallace drove in wild horses.

June 6, 1858. Sunday. It was very warm. Received a note from Dr. Tolmie advising me of having command of washing the sheep at the fort, also that Walker, whose yearling filly we had branded in mistake had demanded twenty-five dollars compensation for his filly. She is a very common looking Indian horse and not worth twenty-five dollars.

June 7, 1858. Monday. It was very warm. Barr, Rabesca, Lagace, Ross (from Kul-kul-eh), Ignace, and Wayamoch were hand weeding the large potato patch (four acres) which is very foul with sorel. Went to Spanaway and Sastuc. The weat at Sastuc is rather common looking, Oats, good. Ordered in the Sastuc sheep tomorrow to the Fort for washing and clipping. I sent in the Tu chat chee band this afternoon. Also sent two half broken horses to the Fort for use. The news that Keheva and Kalama have arrived from the Thompson's river gold mines is here. I think they do not have much gold.

June 8, 1858. Tuesday. Very warm weather. The hands before breakfast planted cabbage. After, Barr, Ross, Rabesca and Ignace were weeding potatoes. Wyamoch cutting hides for Cabrettas. Simon took a riding horse from Kul kul eh (Leshuou) for Dr. Tolmie's use, and remained there to assist at the shearing. I went myself to the fort and remained all day and superintended the shearing of the rams. McLeod's Merino ewes were shorn. Washed some of the rams himself. 

Some of the recently arrived English downs weigh one pound up. I go in again tomorrow to attend at shearing. J. Gale who left two months ago for the mines, returned here this evening he wants to work. I intend placing him as a herder with George Daniells and have Anoha his present partner to work about the farm.

June 9, 1858. Wednesday. The finest kind of weather. I left Muck this morning for the Fort where I am to stay and superintend the sheep shearing. The ranchers Kalama and Keheva seem to desire work after I left. Peter Lagace ordered to take them on the land as before. The hands at Moluck were employed at weeding and carting up the potatoes. A. Wallace was breaking horses, Simon came in with me to the fort. Greig at the Fort also to lend a hand. At the Fort the sheep are not dry enough to shear. All hands (washers excepted) washing The Tu chat chee ewes in this evening.

June 10, 1858. Thursday. Fine, very warm weather. Washed the Sastuc ewes. Sheared nearly all the gemmers. The Siluhogwas band of ewes in this evening. The gemmers are in very fine condition for they have been running at the Fort since February last.

June 11, 1858. Friday. Extremely warm weather. Washed the Siluhogwas ewes and finished clipping the gemmers and commenced the Tu-chat-chee ewes. Greig employed in examining the teeth of the ewes to ascertain their age.

June 12, 1858. Saturday. Fine weather. Finished clipping the Tu-chatchee band ewes by two p.m., too late to send them home. The band comprises eight ewes broken mouth, two hundred forty six full mouth, and five hundred forty-two under four years of age. I engaged an Indian Boy, Tamah, to herd with McLeod. Heard from P. Lagace. Spent all night at Muck. Kalama and Keheva commenced work on the 9th instant. Indian Kowalah has left off work. We killed some dry ewes from the Siluhogwas south down land. They weighed from sixty to seventy-six pounds.

June 13, 1858. Sunday. Very warm weather. Went to Muck, Siluhogwas, and Ashland. Directed Lagace, Junior to turn out Yam-hill's mares and put Yam-hill to work. Told old Lagace also to turn out Yelmor's mares and send Yelmor to Muck. Lagace and Couri are to stake the park at Ashland farm.

June 14, 1858. Monday. Fine. Clipped part of the Sastuc Ewes. Washed the Muck ewes.

June 15, 1858. Tuesday. Cloudy with signs of rain. Finished the Sastuc ewes and sent them home. Commenced and finished clipping the Siluhogwas south down Ewes making nearly eleven hundred clipped today. The Molock house wethers are in.

June 16, 1858. Wednesday. Gloomy weather. Sheared the Sastuc ewes.

June 17, 1858. Thursday. Gloomy weather. Came out today by way of Tu-chat-chee Siluhogwas, Ashland and Kul-kul-eh. Lagace and finished the fence at Ashland. Couri at work at Siluhogwas fence. Ross looking after horses and attending to his crop. The hands at Muck were weeding the potatoes.

June 18, 1858. Friday. Fine weather. Kalama and Keheva are making a gate for the back of the garden and commenced building a leanto shed on the west end of the kitchen to serve as a milch and meat house. Barr, Rabesca and Anoha are weeding in the garden, transplanting cabbages, etc.

The Indians Ignaci and Kowahtah have left off work. Peter Lagace, Junior with the horse and cart killed and brought home a young ox. I bought it some time ago from A. Berg and it has been running till now at Sandy Smith's place. A. Wallace and Simon are with the wild horses. Wyamoch is making cabrettas.

June 19, 1858. Fine weather. Kalama and Keheva are getting out stuff for the kitchen shed. Barr with the horse and cart took the monthly rations to Molock house and Spanaway. Rabesca with the wagon took rations to the Southwest station. wyamoch is making cabrettas. Anoha and Lagace variously employed. Simon went to the Fort and drove a number of used up horses to grass at Kul-kul-eh and brought back oxen and wagon from Molock houses.

June 20, 1858. Sunday. Gloomy, rainy like weather.

June 21, 1858. Monday. It was blowing hard from the southwest with slight showers of rain. Kalama and Keheva made a gate for the field containing the oats now being cut for green feed. Anoha was cutting fire-logs. Barr with one yoke of oxen are hauling the same. Rabesca and Lagace, Junior, are earthing up the potatoes with the plough. Simon and A. Wallace are riding wild horses. Thirty-three horses and mares have been partly tamed since 10th of May. Cooper is here for the Sastuc rations. Some of the weat at this place looks very rank and if there is much rain, I fear that it will fall.

June 22, 1858. Tuesday. There were heavy showers with thunder. The hands were employed building the kitchen shed, weeding, ploughing and riding wild horses. We turned out the oxen.

June 23, 1858. Wednesday. It was gloomy, showery weather. Kalama and Keheva are at work on a new building. Barr and Anoha are digging picket holes for a park in front of the stables. Rabesca is ploughing with stallions (fallowing the sorrel land.). Lagace took the horse and cart to the Fort and brought out flour. A. Wallace was thrown off a maroon and hurt. The horse got off the bridle and saddle. 

I went to Tu-chat-chee, Siluhogwas, Ashland, and Kul-kul-eh. They are getting along well with the fencing at Ashland and Siluhogwas. I marked out a place for a large cattle park at Ashland. Thuphua and Skullah are working with Lagace, Senior. A few sickly looking ewes are in the Tu-chat-chee and Siluhogwas bands.

June 24, 1858. Thursday. Squally weather. Kalama and Kehova are at work on a new shed. Barr and Aroha are variously employed. Rabesca ploughed and harrowed in a quarter acre field of turnips on the green. Ashland parked off by the sheep afterwards ploughing in the sorrel. 

Simon found the missing horse and saddle, however there was no bridle. Wallace is all right and is riding horses. Lagace is out looking for a young steer, but couldn't find it. Wyamoch has been sick all this week. Received a note from Doctor Tolmie instructing me to purchase six head of beef steers and to go as high as twelve and one half cents a pound. Went to Wren who wants thirteen cents.

June 25, 1858. Friday. Cold, rainy weather. The hands were employed at the new house in the back kitchen making axe handles. Also in ploughing and harrowing sorrel land. Went myself to Spanaway, Molock House and Sastuc I purchased six head of cattle from Mr. Mahon at twelve cents per pound live weight, four years old for $132.00 or about eleven and one half cents per pound Went to Gravelles and purchased two oxen to be delivered at the Fort tomorrow. Mahon's to be delivered on Monday next. The crop at Molock farm is looking good.

June 26, 1858. Saturday. Gloomy weather. The hands were at the new house. Also they were cutting and hauling gate posts, etc. Rabesca took around the rations to the south west stations. I went to the fort today. Gravelle delivered his cattle. I purchased a gelding at the Fort. Young was here today. Dr. Tolmie has instructed me to prepare to keep one hundred beef steers between Spanaway and Molock houses.

June 27, 1858. Sunday. Fine.

June 28, 1858. Monday. Heavy showers during the day. All hands were employed in weeding potatoes, the horse breakers and Lagace excepted. Lagace and myself went to Mahon's and drove six beef steers, assisted by Mahon, to this place. Paid Mahon $324 for the same. We called at Spanaway. Greig is making rails. Young was here this evening.

June 29, 1858. Tuesday. Fine. Rabesca ploughed and sowed with cole seed about one third acre of land. Lagace and Wyamoch took five of the Mahon oxen to Kul-kul-eh. Afterwards they butchered the sixth here. Simon and Wallace drove a lot of half broke horses to Kul-kuleh. Afterwards they drove in a band of wild horses. The remaining hands were putting up a fowl house. Young at work here today. Received a note from Dr. Tolmie informing me that Huntington had arrived at the Fort with thirty-six beef oxen. I am to go to the Fort tomorrow. I gave Gravelle $132.00 for two oxen.

June 30, 1858. Wednesday. Fine weather. Rabesca earthing up potatoes with the plough. Wyamoch and Lagace were branding foals and they cut up and corned the ox killed yesterday. Kalama, Keheva and Young picking the crop. Aroha and Barr were hauling logs with two yoke of cattle. The horse cart went to the Fort for necessaries. Myself and two Indian boys, Simon, and Wallace went to the Fort and brought out thirty four of the Huntington beef oxen. I intend on branding them tomorrow and given them to P. Lagace, Senior, to herd at Ashland.

July 1, 1858. Thursday. Fine weather. The hands were employed till midday branding the beef cattle. I sent the cattle, thirty-four head to Ashland. In the afternoon the hands were peeling logs, etc. I went to Spootsilth Lake to find a man named McCarty, who had a lot of cattle for sale. I couldn't find him, but heard that he had sold to Meeker. Received orders from Dr. Tolmie to send Greig to Borsts, Skookumchuck, to try and buy his (Borsts) beef cattle and wethers. Greig starts tomorrow. I also have orders to send seven beeves to the Fort tomorrow.

July 2, 1858. Friday. Fine weather. Greig started this morning for Borsts riding "Dorset." Myself and Young, Kalama, Keheva, Rabesca and the horse wagon went to Ashland and commenced making a two acre park, enclosing part of the river for parking cattle. We hung a gate and made log fencing across the river. Cowri and Kuphau will finish the park. Went to Kul-kul-eh and Siluhogwas. Sent the cart to the Fort and two quarters of beef were brought out. Sent six beeves to the Fort from Ashland. The Mahon cattle have gotten away from Kul-kul-eh. The oxen and wagon with Barr and Simon fetched one thousand cedar boards from the Squally River purchased from Bastien for eleven dollars.

July 3, 1858. Saturday. Fine. Heard that the cattle bought from Mahon are back on their old range. Rabesca took rations to the southwest stations. Lagace and Aroha are salting beef and cleaning out the store. Barr is hauling logs with the oxen. Kalamat Keheva and Young made a machine for breaking wild horses.

July 4, 1858. Sunday. Fine weather. Day of American Independence.

July 5, 1858. Monday. Fine. All hands made a holiday. Went myself to Yelmin to inquire for beef cattle. There were none to be obtained. Greig returned. Borst has no cattle but would sell fifty or eighty wethers at twelve and one half cents live weight.

July 6, 1858. Tuesday. Fine all day but in the evening it was windy and looks like rain. P. Lagace, Junior, took Yelmor to Steilacoom and got him shod by the military smith. Afterwards assisted by A. Wallace and Simon in breaking horses by the machine. The remaining hands were raising a log building for a stable for the two American stallions. Wilson one day. I engaged Kowatah to herd and ride wild and half broke horses at Kul-kul-eh.

July 7, 1858. Wednesday. Fine. The hands were employed at the new stable and breaking in horses. Dr. Tolmie was out. Myself and Young are to go to the Fort this evening and start tomorrow for Skookumchuck to buy cattle and sheep.

July 12, 1858. Fine weather since the seventh. Came out to Muck today. We arrived at the Fort on Saturday evening. I purchased fifty wethers from Borst and forty head of cattle from Hendress and Coulter of Mound Prairie. Young will drive the sheep to the Fort. Hendress arrived at the Fort last night with the cattle and I had them brought out here for branding tomorrow. 

The hands here have been having a drunk since my absence. John Gale left drunk. The new stable and hen house have been roofed. Rabesca ploughing today for cole seed. Barr fetched a load of lumber last week from the Fort. I sent the horse cart in this evening for salt beef, Peter Lagace with it.

July 13, 1858. Tuesday. Fine weather. Young returned, had gone home. Went with Burge to see some beef cattle and bought three head at twelve cents. Branded the Hendress cattle and sent them to Ashland in charge of Peter Lagace, Senior. In the afternoon Kalama and Keheva were fitting iron skeins to the axles of the horse breaker. Rabesca was ploughing. 

Lagace and the cart arrived out from the Fort this morning with beef. I saw Morrison, he wants to sell the improvements on his place joining the company's station at Molock prairie. Ross was here today assisting at the branding. Barr and Wyamoch with the oxen and wagon went to the Fort this afternoon to bring out a load of lambs tomorrow.

July 19, 1858. Monday. The weather since the 13th has been fine. I have been at the fort, employed since the thirteenth. Came out here once in the interval. The hands have been employed in finishing the new store adjoining the kitchen, ploughing and breaking wild horses. I came out by way of Kul-kul-el, Siluhogwas, and Ashland. The beef cattle are doing well. Sent Couri and Kuphua to build a lodge and move the sheep park near Squally Lake. 

I intend moving the Southdown ewe flock from Couri's to Squally Lake, so as to allow the Ashland cattle to have uninterrupted range around Siluhogwas. The rams have gone to range at the Fort, for the present to keep them from mixing with the Down ewe flock at Squally Lake. I sent thirteen head of cattle to the Fort on Friday last.

July 20, 1858. Tuesday. Fine. Mr. Hadley arrived today. He has a band of two hundred fifty beef cattle close by. He is to trade one hundred fifty for sheep as to the agreement made with Dr. Tolmie six weeks ago. The other one hundred he will sell us, if we can agree upon a price. Kalama and Keheva in the forenoon commenced making a flour bin. Afternoon was spent in reframing corrals. I took Legg on today at fifteen dollars a month, he begins tomorrow. Rabesca knocked off today. I went to the fort this evening and out again. I heard that nineteen of the Henness cattle have gotten away.

July 21, 1858. Wednesday. Fine weather. Sent Ross and Lagace, Senior to look for the missing cattle. Wallace was herding cattle at Ashland until Lagace's return. Simon found and drove home twelve of the missing cattle-Legg is ploughing for coleseed. Lagace mowed the sheep park and cut feed for the rams. Barr returned from the Fort with the ox team. He went in on Monday and assisted to haul up the reaper from Steilacoom. I sent the cart to the Fort for provisions, etc. Kanakas finished the corrals. 

Went to Sulakowgas, Ashland, Kul-kul-eh, the Fort, Sastuc, Spanaway and home. I bought four American three year old heifers from Morrison for two hundred dollars. I received instructions from Dr. Tolmie to buy Morrisons improvements at Molock plain for three hundred dollars. I go to see him tomorrow. Coopers house is to be raised on Friday. The crops are ripening fast.

July 22, 1858. Thursday. It was fine ripening weather. Kalama and Keheva are reparing the sheep separating parks. Legg sowed and covered in one half a acre of cole seed. Lagace and Picagune are thinning carrots and turnips in the garden. Barr, with the ox wagon, went to Youngs to haul out rails for a cattle corral. I went to Spanaway and Molock House. I made an agreement with Young to serve the Company for one year from the first of June, 1858 for wages at the rate of 42.11 pounds per annum, and an old farm at the end of his time. I paid Morrison twenty-one dollars and ten cents on account for the purchase of his improvements on Elk plain, a farm house not weather boarded, five thousand rails, plough and iron toothed harrow. He is to give up possession after the harvest. 

Lagace and Ross returned they found twelve of the missing cattle. Six are still missing. Messrs. Hadley and Heatherly arrived. The Cattle are near Gordon's Lake on the east side.

July 23, 1858. Friday. Kalama and Keheva are making cedar boards-Legg fetched a wagon load of cedar boards from Packards, Squally Valley. He left them at Ashland for roofing a barn. Couri, Kuphau and Greig at Sastuc are raising a dwelling house for Cooper. Barr and a team returned from Molock House. Six of the cattle are still missing from Ashland. Ross was employed hunting for them. Messrs. Hadley and Heatherly with myself went to the Fort.

July 24, 1858. Saturday. Fine weather. Kalama and Keheva are making a flour binn. Took round rations. I went myself to the Fort this evening by Sulakowgas and Ashland. Six head of steers are still missing from Ashland.

July 26, 1858. Monday. Fine. I came out from the Fort with Dr. Tolmie to bargain for Hedleys and Heatherlys cattle. Nothing done today. I returned to the Fort this evening. The hands were working at the flour binn. Two teams fetched a load of cedar boards from Packards and left them at Ashland.

July 27, 1858. Tuesday. Fine weather. Doctor Tolmie and myself came out here to breakfast. We bargained and got the one hundred fifty steers from Hadley and Heatherly. They are to be traded for sheep. They are principally two years old. Had to kill three for an average of three lots of fifty each. Bargained to take ninety more steers at eleven and three quarters cents per pound, cash. We will bargain for them tomorrow. All hands were employed about the cattle.

Ross, Young and Greig are here, Greig and Young are to take charge of the Heatherly and Hadley cattle. Dr. Tolmie returned this evening to the Fort. Myself, Hadley, and Heatherly remained here at Muck House. The one hundred fifty steers purchased today are parked here tonight. The hands were taking turns to watch them all night to prevent them jumping into the crops. Legg took wheels to Steilacoom and had the tires tightened.

July 28, 1858. Wednesday. Fine weather. Doctor Tolmie out today. He purchased eighty-eight head of cattle from Hadley and Heatherly. The hands commenced branding them after dinner. Young, Greig, and Ross are here. I went to the Fort with Dr. Tolmie by the way of Sulakowgas and Ashland. Came out again this evening. Legg and a team took eight pounds of beef to the Fort and fetched out a load of salt. Murdock McLeod's ewes were here tonight. We killed two steers for an average on the above eighty-eight head of steers.

July 29, 1858. Thursday. Fine weather. The hands finished branding the cattle by 10:a.m. Greig, Young and Ross took them to their pasture ground at Molock house. Young and Greig are to have charge of them total two hundred thirty-three head. Dr. Tolmie was here. I was employed all day picking out sheep to pay for the cattle purchased from Hadley and Company, to wit the following sheep.

McLeod's band of Merino Ewes in the number of 61. 285 Merino Ewe Lambs from the same band. 564 cross bred South down Ewes from Couri's band. 133 cull from South down.

The gemmers will be here tonight. I will pick lambs from Ewe flocks tomorrow and portion off gemmer ewes to various bands. Doctor Tolmie purchased from Morrison the crop on his late place on Elk Plain for two hundred fifty dollars cash. P. Lagace and Ross were drunk tonight. Four or five of the Fort hands are here assisting at the sheep.

July 30, 1858. Friday. Fine weather. I have McLeod a band of wether lambs to herd at Tuchatchee. I sorted and broke the gemmer band and picked out one hundred of the best South down ewes for the English rams. Messrs. Handley and Heatherly will take in all one thousand seven hundred and fifty nine head of sheep, old and young. Dr. Tolmie was out today again. I went home with him to the Fort, it was an exceedingly hard day working with the sheep.

July 31, 1858. Saturday. Gloomy weather all day. In the evening it commenced raining. I sent a band of ewe lambs to run at the Fort. Coopers band of Ewes and lambs at Sastuc have yet to be sheared. I sent the Fort hands home. Legg took round the rations. There was no flour. Turned out potatoes. 

Hadley and Company employed in branding their sheep. I sold them today three of the best English down lambs rams of the lot running in the calf pasture, one for one hundred dollars and two for each forty dollars. 

The following is a list of sheep taken by Hadley and Heatherly:

761 Merino ewes (McLeod's band) at $6.00 @ 4566.00
285 Merino ewes lambs at $3.00 @ 855.00
534 Cross bred South Down ewes at $7.00 @ 3738.00
30 Cross bred South Down ewes at $4.00 @ 120.00
50 South Down Ewe Lambs at $5.00 @ 250.00
83 South Down Ewe Lambs at $2.50 @ 207.50
16 Leicester gimmers at $9.50 @ 152.00
1 Yearling Ram Lamb (pure bred) South Down @ 35.00
1 Yearling Ram Lamb(3/4) South Down @ 15.00
2 Ram Lambs pure bred English at $45.00 @ 90.00
1 Ram Lamb pure bred English @ 100.00

I went to Molock House. The cattle are all right. I am thinking of removing Greig to live at Molock Farm, it being more convenient for him to be on the spot, to look after the cattle and putting Barr at Spanaway with the Molock house wethers. We removed provisions, etc. from the old to the new store adjoining Tutuchee.